What makes a civilization? Most anthropologists would agree on certain criteria. Civilizations have urban settlements and are not nomadic. People divide their labor into specific jobs and focus on other activities, such as growing crops, which produces a surplus of food. Other components of civilizations include writing, trading, monuments, and science. These aspects are not universal, but they are important to understand civilization’s development. In this article, we’ll look at the characteristics of civilizations and explain how they came to be.
The Enlightenment philosophers viewed civilization as a common standard for human values. They believed that as long as all societies followed a common standard, they could progress and be successful. They rejected the savagery and primitiveness that separated humans and animals, and instead viewed civilization as a common, unifying standard. Civilization also emphasized scientific and administrative reform. It also promoted the idea of scientific research and self-interest.
The ability to tax agriculture facilitated the emergence of a state. This paved the way for complex civilizations, complete with hierarchies, division of labor, and specialist jobs. Elites ruled over the society, and slaves were a significant component of the workforce. Because a complex civilization required forced labor, it is no wonder slaves were the most convenient option for the elite. It was possible to secure slaves, which fueled a large, prosperous civilization.
Although a civilization varies from one place to another, the common elements they share include cities, written language, state government, agriculture, writing, art, and social stratification. The earliest civilizations were in river valleys, and the first stages of civilization were very different from those today. As food became more plentiful, people began to settle in flat areas. As they spread, the common culture was shared and new patterns began to emerge. So, the evolution of civilizations can be attributed to a variety of factors.
In a large empire, the population may become too large, which can dilute the identity of the people within the empire. Moreover, it can be expensive to build strong defenses that protect the borders of the civilization. Furthermore, such protection can interfere with the development of other aspects of the civilization. External pressure can also cause a civilization to disappear completely or be redefined after hundreds of years. The end of a civilization is ultimately determined by its ability to adapt to these external pressures.
As a result, the evolution of civilizations is often determined by technological developments. The evolution of technology is an important element of human society, and advances in energy and technology have led to the emergence of modern civilizations. While it’s true that the advancement of technology has allowed civilizations to become more complex, some scientists believe that societies will eventually decline as their technological capabilities decrease. As a result, further complexity will result in negative returns for states.