A civilization is a complex society that develops as humans begin to develop urban settlements. It usually includes a state, social stratification, urbanization, and symbolic systems of communication beyond natural spoken language that help keep people together.
Early civilizations often unified by religion, a system of beliefs and behaviors that deal with the meaning of existence. As more and more people shared these beliefs, they could build mutual trust and respect. In many cases, religious leaders also acted as political leaders in their societies.
Eventually, these political and religious leaders developed the means to enforce laws. This led to the formation of a centralized government, which is an important aspect of civilizations.
Another major development was the division of labor, which made it possible to produce a wide range of goods for sale. This helped civilizations to expand, since they could offer goods to other communities.
Writing emerged in early civilizations to help track trade agreements and to make it easier to record events. Cuneiform writing appeared in Mesopotamia around 4000 BCE and later spread to other cultures throughout the world. Oracle bone inscriptions in Ancient China seem to have had spiritual associations, and quipu–knotted strings that were used for records and calculations–appeared in South America.
The Neolithic Revolution, which took place about 11,500 years ago, was a key part of the civilizations that flourished after the end of the last ice age. It is believed that this period saw the introduction of agriculture, which made people the masters of their own food supply.
Despite this innovation, the development of civilization was not easy. It was a long process, and changes in population dynamics were often the most significant influences on civilizations.
As populations grew, they needed ways to manage their resources and keep them from becoming unmanageable. They also needed systems to keep them safe from terrorism and other threats.
One way that these governments developed was through bureaucracy, which is a complex system of rules and procedures. The Romans, for example, relied on an extensive network of bureaucracy and administrative offices to govern their empire.
Other institutions that developed in civilized societies include a specialized literature, professional art, architecture, organized religion and elaborate customs of education. All of these institutions help to maintain a high standard of living, and to create and protect an elite group that can rule the society.
While civilizations can be difficult to define, they are a helpful framework for understanding how human beings come together and form societies.
A civilization is any group of people who share a common culture and a set of behaviors, including a language, belief system, social structures and institutional practices.
The word “civilization” was first used in the 18th century to describe a society that had reached a high level of cultural and social development. As a result, civilizations are often considered superior to other cultures or societies.
In modern times, however, the term has come to mean a variety of different things. Some historians use it to refer to the cultures of a specific society, while others see it as a general term for any culture that has achieved high levels of development.