What Is Civilization?
A civilization is a society that has developed a set of complex cultural traits that are shared by large numbers of people. Civilizations typically have high moral standards, are very organized, and have a strong economy.
Civilization was first developed by human beings in the Indus Valley region of Pakistan and India, in China, on Crete and in Central America around 3000 BCE. From these core centers it spread to most of the world by 1900 CE.
Historians have debated the definition of civilization but most agree that it is a complex and sophisticated society with many social institutions, including money, government, religion, writing, art and accumulated learning.
The earliest civilizations developed along river valleys where people could produce enough food to support the development of a city. These cities later evolved into larger settlements that provided space for more people.
These settlements were often called temple towns because they were built to worship a god. As cities grew, the quality of life became more important to people who lived there.
This quality of living was based on the skills of the people who worked in the society. For example, if someone was a great cook they would eat well and have plenty of clothes. However, if that person was not very good at carving or shoe-making, then they might not have as much material possessions as other people in the society.
As people learned how to make and use tools, they began to build cities and other permanent structures. They also invented writing and a variety of forms of technology, such as pottery.
Eventually, as people learned how to create tools such as knives, weapons and other equipment that allowed them to hunt and gather more foods and to build larger houses, they also began to work together in larger groups. This grouping of workers helped to establish a more complex division of labor, with people who were experts in one area working together and people who were not as expert focusing on other areas such as farming or construction.
Once people started to live in cities, they started to build elaborate systems of government and religion. These systems of religion unified the people of the culture and allowed them to work together more effectively.
Another key feature of civilization was that people were able to exchange goods, ideas and information. This allowed people to learn from each other and share new skills and ideas.
In most societies, people worked hard to earn their livelihoods and provide for their families by growing and harvesting food. As they got better at these skills, they began to be able to specialize in the different areas of production and were able to become richer.
The more food that was grown the more people could be freed from agricultural work, so it became possible to develop more advanced art, architecture and crafts. This led to the emergence of many different civilizations and helped to make human history a long and interesting time.